PURPOSE: This work combines and reanalyzes five years of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) research at 161-km ultramarathons in northern California with primary purposes to define the relationship between post-race blood sodium concentration ([Na]) and change in body weight, examine the interactions among EAH incidence, ambient temperature and hydration state, and explore the effect of hydration status [...]
Water balance control is aimed at normalizing cellular hydration, and sodium balance control at normalizing extracellular volume. Water balance control is based on the regulation of body fluid tonicity, while the control of sodium balance is based on the regulation of effective arterial volume. Disorders of water balance act on cellular hydration: primary disorders induce [...]
Hydration status and fluid and sodium balance in elite Canadian junior women’s soccer players in a cool environment.
Dehydration can impair mental and on-field performance in soccer athletes; however, there is little data available from the female adolescent player. There is a lack of research investigating fluid and electrolyte losses in cool temperatures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the pretraining hydration status, fluid balance, and sweat sodium loss in [...]
Hypernatremia is common in intensive care units. It has detrimental effects on various physiologic functions and was shown to be an independent risk factor for increased mortality in critically ill patients. Mechanisms of hypernatremia include sodium gain and/or loss of free water and can be discriminated by clinical assessment and urine electrolyte analysis. Because many [...]
During exercise, sweat output often exceeds water intake, producing a water deficit or hypohydration. The water deficit lowers both intracellular and extracellular fluid volumes, and causes a hypotonic-hypovolemia of the blood. Aerobic exercise tasks are likely to be adversely effected by hypohydration (even in the absence of heat strain), with the potential affect being greater [...]
The differential diagnosis of hyponatremia is often challenging because of its association with multiple underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, diseases, and treatment options. Several algorithms are available to guide the diagnostic approach to hyponatremia, but their diagnostic and clinical utility has never been evaluated. We aimed to assess in detail the diagnostic utility as well as the [...]
BACKGROUND: Well-recognizedÂ markersÂ for static (one time) or dynamic (monitoring over time)Â dehydrationÂ assessment have not been rigorously tested for their usefulness in clinical, military, and sports medicine communities. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the components ofÂ biologicalÂ variationÂ and theÂ accuracyÂ of potentialÂ markersÂ in plasma, urine, saliva, and body mass (B(m)) for static and dynamicÂ dehydrationÂ assessment. DESIGN: We studied 18 healthy volunteers (13 men and 5 [...]
It is well known that fluid and electrolyte balance are critical to optimal exercise performance and, moreover, health maintenance. Most research conducted on extreme sporting endeavour (>3 hours) is based on case studies and studies involving small numbers of individuals. Ultra-endurance sportsmen and women typically do not meet their fluid needs during exercise. However, successful [...]
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) has been a recognized complication of the rapid correction of hyponatremia for decades. However, in recent years, a variety of other medical conditions have been associated with the development of ODS, independent of changes in serum sodium. This finding suggests that the pathogenesis of ODS may be more complex and [...]
SWEAT RATE AND SWEAT ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION IN INTERNATIONAL FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS DURING GAME SPECIFIC TRAINING.
The purpose of this study was to determine the sweat rate and sweat electrolyte composition in female international level soccer players. Thirteen soccer players performed two 90 min soccer-specific training sessions (T1 and T2) on separate days. Hydration status was determined prior to each session and sweat loss, sweat rate and sweat composition (Na (+), [...]