The objective was to present our clinical experience with bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Forty-six patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) without oedema, 21 oedematous nephrotic children and 15 in remission from nephrotic syndrome were studied. The age range was 2-14 years. Data were obtained with the vector bioelectric impedance analysis method (Piccoli’s RXc graph with 95% confidence ellipses) and compared with normal paediatric values. The mean vector position differs significantly among the groups of evaluated patients (Hotelling T(2) test, p < 0.05). Mean vector position along the 45 degrees direction (major axis of ellipses) indicates a progressive increase in body fluid volume from patients with CKD stage IV to stages II-III to patients in remission from nephrotic syndrome to oedematous subjects. We observed a progressive vector lengthening in children with severe renal disease (separate 95% confidence ellipse). This pattern indicates relative dehydration. BIVA represents a useful clinical tool that is able to detect changes in hydration.